Analgesics drugs Types

Analgesic Drugs Combinations in the Treatment of Different Types of Pain

September 6, 2013 – 11:05

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1Laboratorio de Farmacología, Área Académica de Medicina del Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Eliseo Ramírez Ulloa 400, Col. Doctores, 42090 Pachuca, HGO, Mexico
2Fisiopatologia i Tratament del Dolor, IMIM, Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona (PRBB), c/Dr. Aiguader n° 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
3Multidisciplinary Pain Centre, School of Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195, Japan
4Dipartimento di Chirurgia Ricostruttiva e delle Infezioni Osteo-Articolari, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Via Riccardo Galeazzi, 4, 20161 Milano, Italy

Received 29 April 2012; Accepted 29 April 2012

Copyright © 2012 Mario I. Ortiz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Pain relief can be achieved by a diversity of methods, with drug use being the basis of analgesic treatment. Clinical use of combinations of analgesic drugs has augmented considerably in the last few years. The purpose of combining two or more drugs with different mechanisms of action is to achieve a synergistic interaction [1], yielding a sufficient analgesic effect with lower doses, and, therefore, reduce the intensity and incidence of untoward effects. At present, many diverse classes of drugs serve as an efficient complement to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen or opioids, in the management of pain. But we emphasize that the success of a drug combination depends on the type of pain that is targeted (acute/chronic, inflammatory, neuropathic, cancer). Thus, opioids have frequently been used in combination with acetaminophen or NSAIDs for the clinical management of both acute and chronic pain. Likewise, the NSAIDs-acetaminophen combination has been administered to patients to relief the pain. At the end, the use of these combinations limits the doses of medication that a patient can receive. However, not all the opioid-NSAID, opioid-acetaminophen, or NSAID-acetaminophen combinations are clinically successful in all cases. For example, the association of weak opioids, such as dextropropoxyphene, to acetaminophen does not significantly increase pain relief compared to acetaminophen alone [2]. The administration of rectal acetaminophen combined with ibuprofen does not improve analgesia after adenoidectomy in the immediate postoperative period compared with either drug alone [3]. Likewise, the combination of codeine with paracetamol results in additional pain relief but may be accompanied by an increase in nausea, dizziness, vomiting, and constipation [4]. Therefore, several other combinations of analgesic agents must be evaluated experimentally or clinically to gain insight into their potential clinical use. In this sense, different combinations have been suggested. In the present special issue, a study realized by H. A. Ponce-Monter et al. showed that the diclofenac plus B vitamins combination was more effective to reduce the pain than diclofenac alone. Authors conclude that the combination of diclofenac plus B vitamins could be a safe and inexpensive postsurgical analgesic strategy.

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